N o r t h   A m e r i c a n   T u r b o c o u p e   O r g a n i z a t i o n

T U R B O C O U P E   F A Q

DISCLAIMER: Information contained herein is presented for educational reference only and it's complete accuracy can not be guaranteed. While care and due dilligence were observed in it's creation, neither NATO nor it's members can accept any responsibility for the outcome of modifications or repairs based on its use. All risk is therefore accepted by the individual user.

C O M M O N   P R O B L E M S C l i c k   t h e   S y m p t o m   F o r   I n f o
Door Handle Loose Door Glass off track Boost Gauge not reading Oil in TB, Turbo, VAM, IC
Runs Rough and Misses Just bought TC, what should I check?
Diagnosing No Start Conditions Split Intercooler Hose Quick Fix
Engine bucks/ jumps few mins after start up then runs fine Head Gasket Replacement Console Switch Panel Lettering Door Lock Switches
Door Hinge Fix Sunroof Leaks Installing New Headliner Fuel Pump Diagnostics
Oil Pressure Problems Sunroof Won't Open Hood Liner / Hood Insulation  

D R I V E T R A I N   &   B R A K E S C l i c k   t h e   S y m p t o m   F o r   I n f o
Brake Bleeding Center Force Clutch Info 8.8 Differential Capacity Automatic to 5-speed Conversion
A4LD Transmission Upgrade Brake Booster Relay Diagnosis TEVES II Electro-Hydraulic Braking System 87-88 TC's 87-88 Rear Brake Part Numbers
Clutch Fork Part Number 87-88 87-88 Rear Brake Caliper Rebuild    

H E A T I N G   &   C O O L I N G C l i c k   t h e   S y m p t o m   F o r   I n f o
Cooling System Diagram Electronic Climate Control Display Blinking Cooling Fan Test Cooling Fan Switch 85-86
Electronic Climate Control Display - F/C Heater Core Engine Overheating Ranger Fan Conversion
AC Compressor Clutch Disassembly    

E N G I N E C l i c k   t h e   S y m p t o m   F o r   I n f o
Sensor and Device Location Picture EGR cleaning and related problems EGR Recall Notice Info 2.3L Head - Bolts, Gasket and Tip
Valve Spring Check Motor Mounts - are 83-86 mounts interchangeable with 87-88 mounts? Ranger Roller Cam Vacuum Diagram
Checking Distributor Cam Wear Head Gasket Replacement Engine Overheating Fuel Pump Diagnostics
Fuel System Diagnostics Replacing Valve Cover Gasket Horsepower Calculator
Cam Timing Belt Replacement and Set Up      

T U R B O   &   E X H A U S T C l i c k   t h e   S y m p t o m   F o r   I n f o
O2 Sensor Info (General) O2 Sensors and Air/Fuel Gauges (In-depth) Upgrade to a T-3 turbo (87-88) How Factory and Aftermarket Boost Controls Work
Check Turbo Light ByPass Valve (BPV) vs
Blow Off Valve(BOV)
Twin Turbos vs Single Turbo What does "AR" mean?
Turbo Care during  Oil Changes Turbocharger Troubleshooting Exhaust Manifold Glows Red Red Fluid Leaking From Gillis Valve

M I S C E L L A N E O U S C l i c k   t h e   S y m p t o m   F o r   I n f o
Insurance Claim Tips Recall Info, Service Bulletins Ground Effects Hood Liner - Under Hood Insulation
Console Switch Panel Lettering Sunroof Will Not Open 87-88 TC Part Numbers Acronyms & Abbreviations
Calculator - Tach RPM to Speed Calculator - Gear/Tire Change 1983 - 1988 Turbocoupe Production Numbers  

E L E C T R I C A L C l i c k   t h e   S y m p t o m   F o r   I n f o
Dim Headlight Fix Checking Codes without a Scanner Fuseable Link Testing Voltmeter vs Ammeter
Installing Aftermarket Stereo Checking Speaker Phase Door Speaker Wiring Colors Installing 130 amp 3G Alternator
Electrical Ground Locations Door Lock Switches (83-88) Ignition Switch Install Tip Tail lights quit working
Trouble pulling codes Rewire Fog Lights Converting KPH Speedometer to MPH Installing Headlight Relays
Speedo Calibration using
Desktop Computer
Unable to Retrieve EEC Codes Remote TFI Mounting(by John Olds) Remote Mount TFI(by John Klett)

T U N I N G   &   M A I N T E N A N C E C l i c k   t h e   S y m p t o m   F o r   I n f o
Changing Fuel Filter(s) How do I adjust the timing?
TPS/Idle Adjustment NOS kit for 1988 TC
VAF Mod for 88TC Turbo Care during Oil Changes Cam Timing Belt Replacement and Set Up  

S U S P E N S I O N C l i c k   t h e   S y m p t o m   F o r   I n f o
Ball Joint Inspection Plus Tire Sizing Programmed Ride Control Problems Adjusting PRC for Drag Racing

Following are most info topics. Some topics open in a new page, and are not located on this one.
Therefore use the headings above and all should be revealed.

How do I adjust the timing?
Shut off warm motor and hook up timing light. Locate the SPOUT (SPark OUT) connector, which is a little plug in the harness from the TFI module on the distributor. It is about 8" from the distributor. Remove the SPOUT plug and start the car. Check timing. Stock setting is 10 degrees BTDC. Adjust by loosening the distributor hold down bolt (17mm, PITA to get at), and rotate distributor to set timing. Going to 12 or 13 degrees from the stock 10 degree setting gives better low end, off boost power, but can lead to detonation under boost. Every car seems to like a different setting, so you will have to experiment with it. When done, REMEMBER to reconnect the SPOUT connector before you drive the car. At Idle, with the SPOUT connected, timing will be in the 20+ degree range. If you should have to remove the distributor, then it is very important that before you pull the distributor out to work on it, mark the direction the rotor is pointing on some external reference point. (TIP): If you set the engine to TDC (Top Dead Center) for the number 1 cylinder so the rotor is pointed at the number 1 wire terminal on the distributor cap. Then remove the cap. Note that the rotor should be pointed toward the outside, front bolt for the upper/lower intake. That's your reference point.

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TPS/Idle Adjustment by Keith Nubel 1- First bring the engine up to normal operating temperature. 2- Turn the engine off and unplug the Idle Air Control. This is located on the backside of the Throttle Body near the firewall. This device is a round cylinder approximately 5 inches long with a two-bolt flange and 3 wire male / female plug connector. 3- Using the small adjustable wrench adjust the base idle to 700 – 800 RPM 4- Locate the Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) on the Throttle Body. This is also located on the backside of the Throttle Body near the firewall. This is a black plastic device with two screws that allows adjustment and three wire male / female connector. Connect the voltmeter to the TPS and ground. The wire should be the one with a green strip. 5- Using the small Phillips screwdriver adjust the TPS output voltage to approximately 1.0 volts. Most turbo tuners find that setting your voltage to around 0.90 - 0.95 volts works best. I set mine around 0.94 volts. 6- Turn off the engine. 7- With the engine off and the voltmeter still connected move the throttle linkage slowly from idle position to wide open and back to idle, look for a steady increase and then decrease in voltage without any voids or dead spots. Any voids or dead spots would indicate a faulty TPS. 8- Plug in the Idle Air Control. 9- Start the engine. The engine’s idle speed should settle in around 1000 RPM. 10- Take the Turbo Coupe for a test drive.

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Acronyms & Abbreviations ACT - Air Charge Temperature ATDC - After Top Dead Center BTDC - Before Top Dead Center ECT - Engine Coolant Temperature EEC - Electronic Engine Control EGO - Exhaust Gas Oxygen sensor EGR - Exhaust Gas Recirculation IAC - Idle Air Control ISC - Idle Speed Control KOEO - Key On Engine Off; a self-test mode of the ECA KOER - Key On Engine Running; a self-test mode of the ECA KS - Knock Sensor PCV - Positive Crankcase Ventilation PIP - Profile Ignition Pickup SPOUT - SPark OUTput; signal from ECA TF I - Thick Film Ignition (module) TPS - Throttle Position Sensor VAF - Vane Air Flow VAM - Vane Air Meter VAT - Vane Air Temperature WOT - Wide Open Throttle

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Brake Bleeding by Martin Bokesch On the brake bleeding, the antilock system requires a bit different approach than conventional brakes. If your going to bleed the system, its the right time to flush them, which means keep bleeding until the fluid runs clear as well as no bubbles. As the T/C uses an electric brake pump and a pressure storage accumulator the system is different in the requirements for bleeding. The front brakes can be bled the old fashioned way. One person pumping and the other opening and closing the bleed screws. There is no need to start with the rear brakes first as they are isolated through the system antilock valve, but its a good habit to do it by the book. Back Brakes: The back brakes have to be bled with the accumulator charged up. Jack up the car and block it. Turn the ignition on and let the brake boost pump build up pressure and cut out. Start with the right rear, have someone push and hold the brake pedal down, do not pump, leave the key on as the pump has to be able to kick in to rebuild pressure during the whole procedure on the back. With the pedal down, open the bleed screw for about 10 seconds, then close it. CAUTION there is a lot of pressure at the screws, so open slowly. Also, don't run the brake pump motor for more than 20 minutes at a time, as the motor may overheat and kick out. There is a thermal overload switch in the motor to protect it so if it does stop, you'll have to wait for a while until everything cools down. Do this until the fluid runs clear, no bubbles. Move to the drivers side and do the same. Alternate between the 2 sides until the fluid is clear and no bubbles. It helps if you can slip a tube over the end of the bleeder screw and insert it into a bottle with some water in it. If air is coming out of the system, the tube end submerged in the collection bottle will show up as bubbles. When the bubbles stop, the air is out. I mentioned using water because brake fluid is not mineral oil, so why waste it. Brake fluid is actually made up more of an antifreeze solution. Front Brakes: The front brakes bleed with or without accumulator chare pressure. Just use the same hose and collection bottle set up, start on the passenger side. Have you "helper" pump the pedal up and down about 5 times. Get into the habit of counting this down so you get a sequence developed. At the 5 pump, pump down and hold the pedal down. Do not let go until told. With the pedal held down, open the bleed screw slowly and allow the fluid to drain. Unlike the back brakes, the fluid will come out in a steady stream then weaken and drop ff to no fluid at all. When this happens, tighten the screw and pump it again, hold bleed, tighten and keep repeating the process until the fluid is clean and no air. Move to the drivers side repeat. Again, as with the rear, do both sides at least twice to ensure there is no more air in the system. When all done, with the key on, brake pressure built up in the accumulator, pump the brakes about 15 times to settle the fluid and pistons into place. Turn the key off. Pump the brakes again, counting the pumps. at between 15 to 20 pumps, you should notice the pedal pressure increase. This means that the accumulator reserve has been used up and all is well in the brake world. It’s safe to take for a cautious test drive to settle everything back in. Any less than 15 pumps, and you still may have air in the system. One word of advice, check the fluid reservoir often, real often, nothing worse than bleeding it out of fluid and having to start over again.

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Dim Headlight Fix Age and sun will eventually cause the headlight lenses to become yellowed or cloudy and sometimes even fogged with moisture inside. The headlights are still available from Ford, part numbers are: (E7SZ-13007-A) and (E7SZ-13007-B) and the list price is around $45.oo ea. To replace the lights, pull the halogen headlight bulb (DO NOT TOUCH the bulb with your fingers or it will burn out in a short period of time) out of the back of the lamp (don't loosen the screw on retainer lock) and remove the in-board parking lamp (between headlight and grille). If headlight alignment is OK, there is no need to TOUCH THE ADJUSTOR SCREWS AT ALL, just release the mounting bolts behind the header panel, undo the lamp and pull the whole headlamp and adjuster unit out in one piece. If you have examined the assembly, and noticed that the adjuster screws need replacement, here are the part numbers for those pieces:

(2 for each headlamp)#E7SZ-13032-C ($5.44 ea.)
(1 for each headlamp)#E7SZ-13032-D ($5.41 ea.)

There is no need to buy the whole headlamp assembly since it will end up being far more expensive than purchasing the needed parts separately. To continue, you will see 3 twist locks on the back of the adjuster panel. Turn them to open (they are hard to turn, brittle, and may need replacement!) and the old plastic headlamp will separate from the adjuster plate. Re-install the new headlamp on the adjuster plate, twist the locks closed and bolt the unit in place. Re-install inner marker light and check the headlamp alignment and you can see at night again! It's a very easy repair and will make a 100% difference.

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CenterForce Clutch Info Info provided by Center Force (CF) Parts are for 1988 Thunderbird Turbocoupe Stage II part# CFT360035 Approximate prices: Stage II clutch $145 Disc $95 Bearing $32 CF tech. dept. states the Stage II has the same pedal feel as Stage I except the Stage II has better gripping power in upper rpm range around 4500 Common mistakes can be avoided by replacing the following: Replace Bearing Retainer Collar (aka the Quill) approx $40-50 Replace Dowel Pins with new ones regardless of condition Resurface Flywheel or replace if damaged or worn excessively. Important Info About: (from CF tech. dept) Aluminum Input Shaft Retainer Bearing Collar Click Here This item is one of the likely cause erratic clutch operation, high pedal effort, improper release/engagement and most common; clutch chatter. Self aligning type throw-out bearing installation tip Click Here Clutch break-in Click Here

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O2 Sensor General Info Normally, an oxygen sensor is designed to last about 50,000 miles. Its life can be shortened by contamination, blocked outside air, short circuits, and/or poor electrical connections. The oxygen sensor can become contaminated by, but not limited to the following: 1. Leaded fuel - leaded fuel is the most common cause of O2 sensor contamination. Lead particles can coat the ceramic element and the sensor cannot produce enough voltage output for proper operation. 2. Silicone - Sources are antifreeze, RTV silicone sealers, waterproofing sprays, and gasoline additives. Silicone tends to form a glassy coating. 3. Carbon - Carbon contamination results from an excessively rich fuel mixture. Carbon in the fuel can coat the sensor, too. With this in mind, you may want to visually inspect the O2 sensor itself. When doing so, check to make sure that the outside of the sensor and its electrical connection's) are free of oil, dirt, undercoating, and other deposits."> If outside air cannot circulate through the O2 sensor, it simply will not be able to function. Also keep in mind that the O2 sensor only generates anywhere from 0-1 volt, and averages around .5 volts. A poor or deteriorating electrical connection is not only frustrating but could also prevent this small voltage from reaching the"> computer (or an Air Fuel gauge). Always be sure to check the electrical connections as well. Testing the O2 sensor output is another way to ensure proper operation. A n; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA; letter-spacing: -1pt">digital voltmeter can be used to test the output of an O2 sensor. Back to Top
O2 Sensors and Air/Fuel Gauges (In-depth): The A/F Ratio Meter is a voltmeter with a range of 0 to 1 Volt. The meter displays the output voltage of the vehicles oxygen sensor through 20 LED's. The first LED will come on at a voltage of .050V, the second at .100V, the third at .150V, etc. LEAN RANGE: Four red LED's (.050 to .249V)

STOICHIOMETRIC RANGE: Ten yellow LED's (.250 to .749V) RICH RANGE: Six green LED's(.750 to 1.000V) The STOICHiometric (STOICH) air/fuel ratio is the chemically correct ratio, theoretically all of the oxygen and all of the fuel are consumed. The mixture is neither rich nor lean. However, due to the fact that combustion is never perfect in the real world, there will always be a small amount of oxygen left in the exhaust. This small amount that is left is what the oxygen sensor measures. The smaller the amount of oxygen that is left in the exhaust, the richer the A/F ratio is, and the higher the oxygen sensor voltage is. The on-board computer or Power train Control Module (PCM) monitors the voltage from the oxygen sensor. If the PCM sees an oxygen sensor voltage greater than .450V, it immediately starts to reduce the amount of fuel that is metered into the engine by reducing the on time to the fuel injectors. When this happens, the A/F ratio starts to go in the lean direction, and the oxygen sensor voltage starts to go down. When the voltage drops below .450V, the PCM immediately starts to increase the fuel metered to the engine by increasing the on time to the fuel injectors to produce a richer A/F ratio. This occurs until the oxygen sensor voltage goes above .450V. This repeating cycle happens very fast (many times per second). The PCM is said to be in closed loop. It is constantly monitoring the oxygen sensor voltage and adjusting the on time of the fuel injectors to maintain a STOICHiometric A/F ratio. This A/F ratio produces the lowest harmful exhaust emissions, and allows the catalytic converter to operate at peak efficiency, therefore reducing the exhaust emissions further. Since the oxygen sensor output is non-liner and very sensitive at the STOICHiometric A/F ratio it will cause the A/F meter LED's to bounce back and forth rapidly. A very small change in A/F ratio causes a large change in oxygen sensor voltage as can be seen on the graph. This causes the A/F ratio meter LED's to rapidly cycle back and forth, and is normal operation when the PCM is in closed loop and trying to maintain a STOICHiometric A/F ratio. The oxygen sensor is very accurate at indicating a STOICHiometric A/F ratio. It is also very accurate at indicating an A/F ratio that is richer or leaner than STOICHiometric. However it can not indicate what exactly the A/F ratio is in the rich and lean areas due to the fact that the oxygen sensor output changes with the oxygen sensor temperature and wear. As the sensor temperature increases, the voltage output will decrease for a given A/F ratio in the rich area, and increase in the lean area as shown on the graph. During wide open throttle (throttle opening greater than 80% as indicated by the throttle position sensor) the A/F ratio will be forced rich by the PCM for maximum power. During this time the oxygen sensor outputs a voltage that corresponds to a rich A/F ratio. But the PCM ignores the oxygen sensor signal because it is not accurate for indicating exactly what the A/F ratio is in this range. The PCM is now in open loop, and relies on factory programmed maps to calculate what the on time of the fuel injectors should be to provide a rich A/F ratio for maximum power. The A/F ratio meter should indicate rich during this time. During hard deceleration the PCM will command an extremely lean mixture for lowest exhaust emissions. This may cause the A/F ratio meter not to indicate anything. The A/F ratio is so lean that it is outside the range that the meter will indicate.

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Ball Joint Inspection:
Most (if not all) Fox cars have wear indicators built in to the ball joints. The spring puts the ball joints under load, so the "grab the tire and shake" doesn’t really work here. Look at the bottom of the joint - the flat part. There is a circular part in the center, maybe 3/8" to 1/2" diameter. If this is sticking up (pointing down) from the flat surrounding area less than 1 mm, the joints are worn. If it is flush with the flat area, the joint is BADLY worn. Back to Top
Checking Codes without a scanner:
First off, pick up the diagnostic connector so it is facing towards you with the two open pins on the top and the four pins on the bottom (you are looking at the side opposite the wires). Next connect a jumper wire to the R.H. top pin and to the single wire lead. Next connect a test light to the 2nd pin from the left in the bottom row and connect the alligator clip of the test light to the positive post of the battery. Now turn the key on and the test light will flash out the codes. BTW, when using the CEL light to pull codes, make sure the bulb is not burned out, or removed by a previous owner. The CEL should light up when the key is turned to the run position with the motor off? If it doesn't, the bulb is probably burned out or missing.

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8.8 Differential Capacity Ford spec book calls for 4 pints + 4 oz of friction modifier

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EGR Cleaning: by Dave Compton Fords are notorious for EGR problems. The EGR is a simple system that allows exhaust to be drawn in to the intake tract. If you don't have flow, it won't work. It's purpose is to reduce Nitrides of Oxygen, (NOx). Clean the EGR valve. The passage in the actual valve gets mighty gummed up with carbon. Look carefully at how the flow works so you make sure it's clean enough to flow. On a few cars, the passage in the upper intake was clogged so badly, that I had to ram it clean with a screwdriver! The connections were flaky on the EGRV solenoid, the "relay" that switches the vacuum when it gets an electrical signal from the EEC-IV. This caused a No EGR condition code 34. On another car, the connections on the EGRV solenoid, were gummed up. Once the connection was cleaned, code 34 went away, and you could tell EGR was flowing during the beginning of the Self Test. Quick check: Run EEC-IV diag, KOER. First the RPMs will come up. Watch the diaphragm of the EGR valve. It will open, moving back about a half inch, and the engine will sound, different. If this happens, EGR is fine, no code. IF you get a code, the flow is blocked, most likely with carbon deposits in the EGR valve itself. Clean it. Note, the code 34 may not disappear on those cars that were modified through an emissions recall. If the diaphram doesn't move, it's not getting a signal or the diaphram is broken (unlikely). Other causes could be bad electrical connections at the EGR solenoid or a bad vacuum line from the solenoid to EGRV diaphram. Cleaning the EGR valve: Remove the valve, two bolts. I clean all of the carbon out from all the valve passages, using screwdrivers, battery terminal cleaning brushes and other pointy things. Brake cleaner spray works good to get rid of this carbon. Be sure to inspect the valve and ascertain which way exhaust gas flows thru the manifold and into the intake. Map out the whole flow path in your head. You will most likely find, that it flows differently through the valve than you thought, and this will then help you to clean the valve completely. They're particularly confusing looking on the 2.3 Turbo. The EGRV is an electrical vacuum solenoid. It allows vacuum to flow from the manifold source to the EGR valve under command from the EEC-IV. It's supposed to be around 75 ohms I think (don't quote me). Sometimes it's bad. More often the contacts are grungy, clean it by scraping the contacts on the valve and the connector, and resealing with that silicone goo for ignition wires that drives out moisture. Checking solenoid: Use a vacuum gauge in place of the EGR valve, run KOER, or accelerate the engine a couple of times and look for a vacuum spike reading on the gauge as the solenoid opens. If you don't get that, make sure you have vacuum going to the solenoid. Use a hand held vacuum pump, to test the EGR valve. Ford's books say the engine MUST stall if you use a vacuum pump to open the EGR valve fully while the engine is idling. It isn't necessary for the engine to stall, but it should run a lot worse, indicating exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) flow. Other stuff: Those little plastic vacuum lines don't last forever! Check them and replace as necessary. And yes, you can use regular rubber vacuum line. If your mileage has dropped off, check the EGR system first. The purpose is to reduce nox (emissions-talk), but it also effectively fills the cylinders with unburnable stuff (exhaust). The EEC-IV knows this and thru the 02 sensors feedback provides the correct amount of fuel. Recommendation… Clean your EGR yearly!

Back to Top EGR Recall Info: Ford issued an Emission Recall in which they replaced the cat and modified the EGR system by installing a "Delay Valve" which basically slows down EGR valve response and counteracts surging. The valve will open & allow/pass 7" of vacuum at anything over 7" source vacuum. This modification and Delay Valve typically triggers a code 34 that is stored in the computer, but is nothing to be concerned with. TSB Number 93E45 Issue Date SEP 94 TSB Title Recall 93E45 - Catalyst Replacement Back to Top
2.3L Head - Bolts, Gasket and Tip: Get new head bolts - only about $10 from Ford. Ask for F3ZZ-6065-FB. Cut the heads off 2 of the old ones, and use them for studs to guide the head down on to the block. Get new dowel pins too. Attach the lower intake to the head first, and install as an assembly. Be sure the head and block surfaces are 100% clean!! If you want the best head gasket money can buy, get a FelPro #1035 - it is pricey, though - about $50 from Summit. Remember to follow the correct torque sequence and steps for the head bolts. FelPro also makes another head gasket (8993 PT1) for our engines. It is considerably cheaper and more than adequate for all but highly modified engines.

Back to Top NOS Kit for 1988 TC: Warning! This is not a modification for beginners. Other modifications are required. Major parts damage can occur and engine life can be shortened drastically. The kit that should fit your car is part number 05215nos and will add 50-60HP safely. This is normally enough power to drop the 1/4 mile times by 1-1.5+sec. It uses a single fogger ahead of the throttle body (but, after the intercooler) to inject fuel and nitrous. NOS Tech Dept

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Plus Sizing Tires: The sporty low profile look is given by a taller wheel with nearly the same height tire but, shorter side wall tire. When you have a taller wheel that allows you to use a shorter side wall tire it does the following:

• Speedometer readings remain accurate.
• Maintains load-carrying capacity.
• Wider footprint.
• Improves steering response.
• Improves cornering force.
• A sporty look! This concept is called Plus 1 and Plus 2 tire sizing. Remember that one of the biggest advantages in moving up to a Plus 1 and Plus 2 tire sizes is the large variety of touring and performance tires available in these sizes. Plus 1 Rule of Thumb: • Increase section width by 10 mm.
• (Side wall to side wall in Millimeters)
• Decrease aspect ratio by 10 points.
• (Section height to section width percent)
• Increase rim diameter by 1 inch.
• (Wheel Diameter in inches) Plus 2 Rule of Thumb • Increase section width by 20 mm.
• Decrease aspect ratio by 20 points.
• Increase rim diameter by 2 inch. Example: Common tire size is 195/70/14 8" Wide x 24.7" Tall. Plus 1 Rule = 205/60/15 8.4" Wide x 24.8" Tall. Plus 2 Rule = 225/50/16 8.8" Wide x 24.9" Tall. These figures vary with brand and width wheel.n; color: white; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA">
When purchasing custom size tires and wheels, purchase from an expert.
Ask your tire dealer if they are familiar with custom tire wheel sizing and mounting. Back to Top
VAF Mod for 88TC: NATO and it's members take NO responsibility for the outcome of this modification! 1988 Thunderbird Turbo Coupe VAF mod - Mike's VAF modification for more fuel intake. If you do not have a good understanding of how the air meter in your Turbo Coupe works, perform steps 1 through 5, start the car, open the throttle and observe what happens. The problem with the VAF is that is doesn't send the maximum amount of voltage to the computer that it is capable of when the throttle is wide open. At full opening of the air door, the contact wiper may be as much as 3/16" from the end of the contact area. The VAF works like a potentiometer - the farther the wiper goes, the more fuel enrichment reaches the engine. Mike says this modification fixes this deficiency with no adverse side effects. 1. Remove the air cleaner assembly and the four 10mm bolts that hold the bracket to the

2. Remove the three 11mm nuts that hold the bracket to the VAF sensor.

3. Disconnect the wiring and the air hose.

4. Carefully remove the black cover from the VAF meter. It is glued on. Work you way
around it carefully. You CAN get it off without destroying it.

5. Put the meter back in the car connecting only the air hose and the wiring. Don't
put the bracket or air filter back in yet - just lay the meter in the car near where it

6. Start the car and make a mark on the white area to mark where the wiper is when the
car is idling.

7. Shut off the engine.

8. Remove the VAF meter.

9. Push the air door open as far as it will go and note how much more travel the wiper can
have without going off the contact area.

10. Loosen the Phillips screw on the top of the wiper while holding the air door open. Move
the wiper to the end of the contact area. Don't go off it.

11. Re-install the meter as in step 5.

12. Start the car.

13. Rotate the black "gear" around the spring clockwise until the wiper points at the mark
you made in step 6. This ensures that the engine will receive the same amount of fuel
at idle and part throttle as it did before the wiper was moved.

You may have to tighten or loosen the spring a bit to get rid of any bogging/ Only trial and
error will produce the optimum setting for YOUR car.

The mod is done! I take no responsibility for this procedure or the contents of this page.
Performance can be gained using this procedure, but if you mess up your car doing it, I'm
not liable. Any questions on this procedure should be directed to Mike at "[email protected]". NATO and it's members take NO responsibility for the outcome of this modification!

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Valve Spring Check: If it's falling down at the same exact RPM every time then valve spring is one of the things it could be. A boost valve won't fix that. You can test for a weak/broken spring by using a vacuum gauge. Hook it up to a spare port on the vacuum tree. With the engine warm check the reading at idle. You should see 18-20 Hg. Bring the engine up to 2000 rpm. If the needle fluctuates rapidly between 10" and 22" and the fluctuations increase as engine speed is increased weak springs are indicated. If a spring is broken the needle will fluctuate rapidly every time the valve tries to close at idle.

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Fuseable Link Testing:
Description and Testing: The fuse links are actually located at the starter solenoid, on the drivers side inner fender, covered up by a small black plastic cover. (In front of the shock tower) There is a common fuse link. It will have a green cover, whereas the rest are basically black or brown. (and a couple of Blues, coming later) Test for power with a test lamp on both sides of the Green link. On the downstream side of the link there will be 2 wires spliced into one, from the link. There will be a Red/Orange and Yellow/White. They should both be live at all times. There will also be a third one spliced in and it will be a Yellow. Also hot at all times. If you follow this Yellow wire through the harness, it will not be to long, it should connect to a Black/Orange and Yellow/light Green and there will be 3 more fuse links fed from this splice. These are all in the area of the starter relay, so at least you are going to be standing in one spot for a while. These 3 fuse links just have a black cover on them, and the outlet wire colors spliced to these are 2 with Yellow covers and one with Black/Orange. All these wires should be hot at all times. From here the wires feed to the following points. 1 Yellow to the back of the fuse panel, #1 fuse, 15 amp. This wire is also split from the back, un-fused power to the ignition switch, which is the only other common thread to all your noted problems. The other Yellow feeds to the rear window defroster. Does it work? The Black/Orange goes to the ride control, does it work. Quick check, Pull out #1 fuse, test light both sides of the fuse holder with ignition off. One side should be hot. If not, fuse link is gone or wire is burnt off or cut off. If you have power to #1 Fuse, put the good fuse back in and pull #18 fuse, 10 amp. You should have power with the key in RUN position. If not you have to go to the fusible links, and check the blue ones, with the key in Run. If both sides of the fusible link are dead, no power with the key on, it points to a bad Ignition switch. When you are checking fuse links for power, move the ground on the test light from the battery negative, to the block and to the body on a few of the tests. If the light comes on bright on one test, and less bright with the ground moved or not at all, you may have some bad ground straps. Not overly common, as they will provide some ground even if dirty, but as you have no power at all, it’s something to check.

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Voltmeter vs Ammeter:
Which is better for monitoring a vehicle's electrical system? Short answer: A voltmeter, by far.Electrical guru Mark Hamilton of M.A.D. Enterprises points out that amperage is a measure of current flow, so an ammeter is actually a"flow meter" that's intended to measure current flow to the battery (under normal conditions) or discharge from the battery (in the caseof alternator system failure). On a typical flow meter, all output mustbe directed through the device to obtain an accurate reading. In theammeter's case, that means all the alternator output used to recharge thebattery must first be routed through the ammeter under the dash. Whichrequires a heavy-gauge cable and presents a possible fire hazard. And theammeter itself must be able to handle all this current flow, so it must havea higher current rating than the alternator's maximum rated output. All this might be worth the hassle if the ammeter produced reliableinformation. But the ammeter can only measure the amount of currentoutput to the battery for recharging purposes: When the alternatorrecharges a "low" battery, the ammeter indicates a high charge rate; with afully charged battery the voltage regulator reduces alternator output, andthe ammeter is supposed to indicate a very low charge rate. But how canyou really tell the regulator has reduced alternator output because thebattery is fully charged? Maybe a diode in the alternator rectifier failed, orthe alternator belt slipped after it warmed up, just as if the battery werefully charged. Or maybe the meter indicates a medium charge rate most ofthe time-does the battery want this much or could the voltage regulator beovercharging the battery? On the other hand, a voltmeter works like a fuel pressure gauge-butinstead of measuring fluid in psi, the voltmeter measures electrical systempressure in volts. Just like a fuel pressure gauge, a voltmeter only needs totap into a circuit; all the fuel (or electricity) does not have to detourthrough the gauge itself. Voltmeter installation is easy, quick, and safe: Ithooks up to a fused, ignition-switched "off/on" source and does notrequire any modification of the circuit used to recharge the battery or anypart of the alternator/regulator system. In short, the voltmeter installed atthe dash will be a stand-alone circuit. The voltmeter directly measures the result of charging-systemperformance. With normal alternator/voltage-regulator function, batteryvoltage is maintained at 14.0 to 14.5 volts-and this is reported directly bythe voltmeter. In the event of alternator-system failure, voltage will be lowand continue to drop as the battery discharges. In the event of an"overcharge" condition, the voltmeter will climb above its normal zone. Insummary, there is no chance for misinterpreting a voltmeter's readings ascan happen with an ammeter. Back to Top
Checking Speakers for “In-Phase”: Using a 9V battery and two small wire leads about 12" long (one red and one black for clarity), begin by connecting the red wire to the positive battery terminal and the black wire to the negative battery terminal. Now hold the other end of the black wire on the negative terminal of the speaker, then briefly touch the red wire to the positive terminal on the speaker. Be sure to take note which way the speaker cone moves, inward or outward. If the speaker cone moves outward (away from the magnet) then the polarity of the speaker terminals is the correct and the same as the polarity of the battery terminals. If the speaker cone pulls down into the basket, the polarity is incorrect meaning it is reversed in reference to the battery, thus being "out of phase". Poor bass response often indicates that the speakers are out of phase. This means that the positive and the negative connections for one of the speakers have been reversed, which causes the speaker cone to move opposite the intended direction. When the out of phase sound waves of this speaker meet the in phase waves of the other speaker, the result is cancellation. This is most evident in the lower frequencies, and results in a hollow, tinny sound quality. To see if this is the case, move the balance control all the way to the right or left while listening. If the sound quality improves at the extreme right or left balance setting, then your speakers are out of phase. To correct this, simply reverse the positive and negative wires on just one of the speakers. If more than two speakers are involved in the system, we recommend that the phase of each speaker be confirmed by making sure that the positive and negative connections are consistent from the receiver to the speaker.

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Door Speaker Wiring Colors:
Front LEFT Driver Door Spkr POSitive (+) color is.......... O/LG (orange/lime green) Front LEFT Driver Door Spkr NEGative (-) color is......... LB/W (light blue/white) Front RIGHT Passenger Door Spkr POSitive (+) color is ...... W/LG (white/lime green) Front RIGHT Passenger Door Spkr NEGative (-) color is ..... DG/O (dark green/orange) On the actual diagrams you will notice the LB/W splices to BK/W and DG/O splices to BK/W (both denoted as negative (-)

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Are the 83-86 mounts interchangeable with the 87-88 mounts?
by Simon Heavlin and Mike Walsted In general, the answer is yes. The whole mount has to be swapped which includes everything from the three bolts on the block to the single long bolt on the frame. The 83-84 and the 85-86 and the 87-88 mounts are all indeed different by design, but in fact are all interchangeable, as long as you change the whole mount. * The insulator on the late 85/86 models is the smallest insulator used on TCs, and is hard to find. * The insulators from the 87/88 can be used on the late 85 and 86 models if the top of the mount is drilled to accept the guide pin from the later model. I/we have recently proven this to be a fact through actual trial fitting. I would say that since the 87-88 solid rubber ones are the strongest and best (stock) design, that they would be the one to duplicate. Back to Top
My boost gauge does
not show any boost, and my car has no power. Does this mean my turbo is bad?
It is possible for the turbo to be bad, but there are many other causes for little or no boost. Check all the hoses between the turbo outlet and the throttle body to be sure the clamps are tight, and the hoses do not have any rips or tears, or were not "folded over" on themselves last time they were reinstalled. Look for intake restrictions, such as a VAM to turbo hose that collapses, and exhaust restrictions, such as a plugged cat converter. You can test for exhaust restrictions by loosening the down pipe from the turbo outlet and driving the car to see if the lost power returns. Check your ignition timing. Also check your timing belt and valve timing to be sure the timing belt has not skipped a tooth. If all these check out OK, remove the VAM to turbo hose, and the turbo inlet elbow so you can see and feel the compressor wheel. Reach in, and try to spin the compressor wheel. It should spin freely. Try to move the wheel up and down and side to side. You should be able to feel some play, but not much. Look at the blades to see if the edges are damaged from contact with the housing. If so, the turbo needs a rebuild. Push / pull in the wheel to feel for axial play. There should be almost none. If axial play is more than a few thousandths of an inch, a rebuild is in order. Back to Top
There is oil in the throttle body, turbo housing, VAM, and intercooler by Jeff Korn Does this mean my turbo is leaking oil and needs to be replaced? It is normal for there to be a very light film of oil in these areas, but lots of oil (puddles) indicate a problem somewhere. The most common cause of excessive oil in the intake system is a leaky PCV valve allowing boost to pressurize the crankcase, which forces oil out through the oil separator at the back of the valve cover, and down through the tube that connects the separator to the turbo inlet. In severe cases, this can even cause the dipstick to blow out, and spray oil all over the engine compartment. Replace the PCV valve with ONLY THE FORD PART! The part number is EV127A. Clean out the oil separator on the valve cover with brake cleaner. You may want to clean out the other oil separator down on the block where the PCV hose enters the block also. Some people put a one way check valve in the hose between the PCV valve and the intake to positively eliminate this problem. Get a F3XY-2365-A 1993 Mercury Villager brake booster check valve for this purpose. It costs under $10 at and Ford or LM dealer. The next most common cause of this problem is worn rings allowing excessive blow by, which will also pressurize the crankcase in much the same way a bad PCV valve does. A compression test may help diagnostics here, but a leak down test will locate this problem for sure. Excessively worn intake valve guides and shot or missing valve stem seals can also leak boost from the intake into the crankcase, so you may want to have a look at those also. If the above check out OK, it is time to pull off the turbo for inspection. Back to Top
My car runs rough and/or misses There are several possible causes. If the car has not had a tune up in the last 15K miles, that would be a suggested first step. Use only Ford Motorcraft plug wires, Motorcraft or Autolight plugs and replace the distributor cap and rotor. Use Autolite 764 copper plugs. You can probably run platniums if you want. Clean the IAB, make sure EGR is not sticking. Remove the idle air bypass valve (IAB) from the back of the throttle body. It is the metal cylinder, about 1" in dia, and several inches long with a 2 wire electrical plug on it. It is attached with 2 bolts, 5/16" head, I think. The TPS attaches right below the IAB. Removing the IAB makes installing the TPS easier. While you have the IAB off, blast the snot out of it with brake cleaner. If the gasket rips, just make a new one out of thin cardboard. (from Jeff K.) Check codes. (see elsewhere on how to retrieve trouble codes from the EEC) Check TFI (See the article on adjusting idle and setting the TPS) Back to Top
What is involved in changing an Auto to a 5 speed?
Parts needed: Clutch, pressure plate, throw out bearing, flywheel, clutch fork and manual transmission from a turbo car (not 5.0), manual trans bell housing and the trans support cross member. Also the master and slave cylinders and connecting line from a an 87-88 TC for 87-88 TC, otherwise the clutch cable and quadrant for pre 86 TCs. The computer from a manual trans car is preferable. Also needed is the complete pedal assembly, clutch depressed switch. Back to Top
My Exhaust Manifold is Glowing Red A leaky intake manifold gasket will suck in un-metered air under no boost conditions, making the mixture lean, which will produce high exhaust temps. Under boost, air will leak out, and it will run rich, which, if real rich, can also lead to high exhaust temps. What about your ignition timing? Excessively advanced or retarded timing will also lead to high exhaust temps. With all that said, if you pop the hood, especially at night, right after some "spirited driving", it is normal for the manifold and turbo turbine housing to glow a dull red, but it should not glow if you drive it easy, and stay out of boost most of the time. A clogged catalytic converter can cause the manifolds to glow. A clogged cat is usually accompanied by a noticeable lack of power and reduced maximum boost.

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Just bought a TC, what should I check. What needs to be done right away? That depends on what kind of condition the car was in when you bought it. Check that the bolts connecting the drive shaft to the differential are tight. Hook up a code scanner and see which sensors need attention. Oil should be changed every 3000 miles. A lot of turbo owners run synthetic because it is more heat resistant to cooking which can clog the oil passages in the turbo. A tune-up should be done every 15K miles with plugs, cap and rotor. Spark plug wires need to be replaced every 1-2 years depending on use and mileage. It's highly recommended to use Ford Motorcraft wires from the Ford dealer because several people have had numerous problems such as missing with other brands. The cam timing belt should be replaced every 60K miles. If it breaks you are stranded (though these are non interference engines so no damage should occur). Other good things to do include replacing the fuel filter ($10) located about midway under the passenger side of the car. Purchasing a $30+ code scanner and checking codes is always a good idea. If you plan to keep the car, the code scanner will more than pay for itself. Inspecting the brakes is a good idea (especially the rears because of the slider pins that tend to freeze up from corrosion). Other good things to do are change fluids in the transmission and rear axle, same with the power steering fluid. Flush the radiator and put in fresh antifreeze if over 3 years since it's been done.

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Can I upgrade to a T-3 turbo in my 87-88 Turbo Coupe?
The 86's had a T3 while the 87-88's had an IHI. The IHI is a smaller turbo, which won't handle as much boost (15-18lbs) or provide as much HP, however it spools up quicker so the lag time for the boost to kick in is less. The T3 can be boosted up to 20-22lbs and provides more power but spools up a little slower? IMHO, the T3 is a good upgrade and will bolt right up. The T-3 will bolt right up. However, the T-3 requires a different oil return line than the IHI. You will have to do a little work hooking up the coolant supply and return circuit but that isn't too hard to fab with parts from a well supplied hardware store. You also need to take the compressor inlet from your IHI and put it on the T-3 for the extra vacuum ports. The inlets interchange with no modification. It's a bolt on but you will have to get a T-3 oil return line, they are different from the IHI return lines. You will either need the SVO water supply line and return line or do a little fabrication. It can be done with regular fittings and some imagination. If from an older TC or Merk you will either have to change the compressor housing in order to connect up to the intercooler or machine the flange off the original housing to get the hose on it. To get the T3 to fit with the stock DP, all you have to do is elongate the two holes in the flange that secures the DP to the outlet elbow. If the T3 has the SVO style compressor outlet (no flange like there is on the 83-86 TC), it will fit right up to the stock IC.

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Recall Info for 1988 TC's: The below recalls and info are for 1988 Ford Thunderbird L4-140 2.3L SOHC Turbo. For other years/makes/models, please visit the NHTSA - Recall Database Safety Recalls TSB Number Issue Date TSB Title 1. 95S28 NOV 95 Safety Recall 95S28 - Ignition Switch Replacement 2. 88S45 MAR 88 Recall 88S45 - Turbo Rear Axle Shaft Replacement Emissions Recalls TSB Number Issue Date TSB Title 1. 93E45 SEP 94 Recall 93E45 - Catalyst Replacement Service Bulletins: To view service bulletins for 1988 TC's, visit the AllData web page For other years/makes/models, visit the NHTSA - Recall Database Back to Top
Diagnosing a "No Start" Condition: To run, it needs compression, properly timed spark, and fuel. Do you have spark? Pull coil
wire off distributor, and put a old spark plug on, lay it on the motor, and crank to see if there is spark. Next when #1 cylinder is at TDC on the compression stroke, is the rotor pointed to #1 plug wire on the distributor cap? If the rotor is not pointing at the #1 plug wire, either your cam drive belt is broken, or has jumped one or more teeth (most likely explanation), or the distributor drive gear / aux. shaft gear have suffered severe damage. If you have spark, do you hear the fuel pump run for a second when you turn on the key? If not, your inertia switch is tripped, or the fuel pump relay is bad, or the wiring is bad, or the pump itself is dead. If the pump runs, does it pressurize the rail - see if fuel squirts out the Schrader valve (looks like a tire valve - on the back of the fuel rail. Do this carefully, fuel may be under high pressure!) Do the injectors have power? The red wires to the injectors should have 12V all the time when the key is on. Is the EEC telling the injectors to fire? Pull one injector electrical connector off, and attach a small 12V test light to the terminals, and crank the engine - the light should flash intermittently. You do not need a code scanner to get codes. If you have a CEL (check engine light), all you need is a paper clip to jumper the STI pigtail at the EEC test connector to the SIG RETURN wire. These are located on the river's side, under the hood, near the starter relay. If you do not have a CEL, you also need an analog voltmeter. The Mustang Corral has a good tech article on doing this - The code test comes in 2 parts - key on, engine off (KOEO), which checks all sensors and wiring as well as output's intermittent fault codes, and the key on, engine running test (KOER), which tests sensors and wiring under operating conditions. See the articles at the Corral for details of performing code scans

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Ranger Roller Camshaft - by Jeff Korn and Pete Dunham The Ranger Roller Camshaft is a relatively mild camshaft. That is its appeal as turbo engines seem to respond best to relatively mild timing events. Its other advantage is that it's a roller so there may be some gains from friction reduction, and cam life will be greatly increased. If you need to pass an emissions test, the Ranger Roller will pass with ease, assuming the rest of the motor and EEC electronics are working correctly. It is reportedly a good low end cam and strong in the middle. It is not a high end cam because of relatively low lift (about 0.355"). The later slider stock cams have a lift of about 0.400" An adjustable cam sprocket cam be used to move the power band up or down the RPM range. Retarding the cam pushes power up in the rpm range while advancing the cam drops the power peak lower in the rpm range. Since it is a relatively low lift cam, stock valve springs in good condition are more than sufficient. It is relatively inexpensive, especially used from a junkyard. It is very long lived so a junkyard cam can be a good find. It can be purchased new from NAPA for around $200 for cam and rollers. Years for the desired cam are 89 to 93 from Rangers and 91 to 93 from Mustangs. Camshaft bearings are the same. The cam can be installed with the motor in the car if the motor mounts are loosened and the front of the motor jacked up so the cam will clear the radiator and A/C condenser. Getting at the two screws that hold the cam retaining plate to the back of the rear most cam tower can be a challenge with the motor in the car. Since removing the head is pretty easy on these motors, head removal may be the best way to replace the cam, especially if the A/C works and you don’t want to remove the condenser. Part Numbers: Ford: Cam (Ford part# E7TZ-6250-C) $187.00, Followers (F1ZZ-6564-A) 24.48 ea. NAPA: Cam -(cep2292194) $84.99, Followers (2142144) $12.99ea

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How Factory and Aftermarket Boost Controls Work - by Jeff Korn & Pete Dunham Boost is controlled, on our cars, by a waste gate (WG). The waste gate, when closed, forces all the exhaust gas to flow over the turbine wheel and spin the compressor wheel to build boost. The WG is controlled by the waste gate actuator (WGA) which is a diaphragm driven device with a control rod on one side that is hooked to the WG. The WGA is spring loaded and set to begin opening the waste gate when it receives a certain level of boost through the hose that goes to the diaphragm (10-psi on Ford turbos). What both the factory and aftermarket boost controllers do is control when the WGA actually receives boost. The factory BCS (boost control solenoid) in conjunction with the EEC will allow up to 10 psi of boost whenever the turbo can build it but won't deliver more than 10 psi in the upper 3 gears until the engine is around 4000 rpms or a little more. It does this by sending boost pressure to the WGA when the boost is at 10 psi and rpms below 4000. When the engine reaches 4000 (approx.) the BCS bleeds or “leaks” off the boost signal to the WGA. This fools the WGA into thinking the boost pressure is lower than it actually is. When the BCS bleeds pressure off the WGA, the actual boost pressure will be about 15 psi, but the WGA will see only 10 psi. This lower 10-psi will open the WG allowing some exhaust gas to bypass the turbine wheel so boost does not build beyond 15. (This is a generalization, not all years of TCs follow this exactly as far as what boost level and what rpm) The Gillis valve and other types take control of the boost signal to the WGA away from the factory BCS and EEC. Inside the Gillis valve is a check ball and spring. The ball and spring block the flow of boost (not vacuum) through the valve and to the WGA until the preset boost level is reached. When that level is reached, the spring can no longer hold the ball over the orifice. Boost enters the valve and on to the WGA, which opens the WG. The Gillis valve doesn't know or care what the engine rpms are, it only responds to the level of boost. This is why it can allow full boost lower in the rpm range. The Gillis valve also has a very small bleed orifice that allows the pressure in the WGA to drop when the throttle is closed so the WGA doesn’t stay open.

Back to Top Electronic Climate Control Display Blinks - How to pull codes - by KellyB & Shannon Blinking of the VFD (temp display) or LEDs on control buttons is an indication that
the control head has detected a fault. You can test for the fault by simultaneously pushing the OFF/AUTO and DEFROST button, and then within 2 seconds pushing the AC button. An error code will be displayed on the VFDs. 88 or 09 indicates no fault found. If you get any other number post it here and someone can decode it from the manual (section 36-75-43)You can do this at anytime but ambient temp should be greater
then 50 F. Codes:

01 = Blend Door Actuator
02 = Floor/Panel Door Actuator
03 = Panel/Defrost Door Actuator
04 = Outside/Reticulation Door Actuator
05 = Blend Door Actuator Current
06 = Floor/Panel Actuator Current
07 = Panel/Defrost Actuator Current
08 = Outside/Recirculation Current
09 or 88 = No Faults found
10 = If code 10 comes with other codes ignore it, but if alone it means no faults
11 = Clutch Signal Low
12 & 13 = Sensors (there are 2-Ambient and In-Vehicle)
14 = Faulty Control assembly
15 = Blower Motor Inoperative

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Electronic Climate Control Display -
Fahrenheit/Celsius There is a red wire that grounds to the metal frame of the dash and connects to the back of the EATC module via the gray connector , remove the ground wire and it will display Fahrenheit.

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Door glass came off the track and dropped - by Nate Killmon You need to get some windshield Urethane adhesive. You can find it in most parts stores like NAPA, etc. It's made by several companies like 3M, Sika, Essex, QuickDry and few others. Take some emery cloth or mild sandpaper and roughen up both the inside of the clips and the glass where the clips go. Next drill 1 or 2 small holes (drill bit size either 3/16 to 1/4 inch in diameter) into each clip. This hole(s) will allow the urethane to escape, preventing air pockets, as well as acting like an anchor pin. This hole(s) is the trick to getting a good bond between the clip and glass. After drilling the holes and scuffing the clips and glass, clean both the glass contact areas and plastic clips well with acetone or alcohol (be careful with acetone, it will eat plastic quick). Once it's clean and dry you can apply the urethane. Seat the window in the clips and put the window all the way up. You MUST leave it up for at least 48 hours to allow the urethane to fully cure. DO NOT waste your time or money on rear view mirror glue, silicone, or other regular glues and adhesives. Yes they will hold it, but only for a limited period of time before they separate again. Do it right, Do it once! The glass is very heavy and there is a lot of pressure applied to it going up and down. Essex U-418HV Quick Cure Urethane Adhesive. Terry Swart (tlswart) found/used another type of adhesive, 3M Wind-Weld Super Fast Urethane Part #0 51135-08609 available at O'Reiley's and other auto parts store. Tip from Pete Dunham... "Also make sure all sliding/moving parts move free and easy. When I did
mine I found the glide bar that the window glass attaches to was full of a sand like substance and moved stiffly. I think this may have had something to do with the glass pulling out in the first place + it puts more strain on the motor. I spent quite awhile cleaning the slide and lubed everything. It's working well now." (Note added Feb. 2005) info provided by ment" face="Verdana" size="2"> at
There is an aftermarket kit for attaching door glass to the regulator. It consist of a fluted channel with a nylon set screw for replacement of the original glued on channels. It is available from Lawrence Lincoln Mercury in Trenton, NJ as well as other Ford dealerships and most auto glass shops.

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Split Intercooler Hose Quick Fix - by Jeff Korn Go to the local hardware store plumbing dept, and get some rubber PVC pipe couplers for about $2 each. The coupler for 2" ID PVC pipe is a perfect fit for the IC to TB hose, and the coupler for 1 1/2" ID PVC pipe is a perfect fit for the turbo to IC hose. You will need to cut an inch or so off one end to shorten them a bit. They will work until you can get some official replacement silicone hoses, or just leave them on for good. I have had a set of these on my TC for the last 6 months after I split a hose, and they still seem as good as new. I do carry a spare set in the truck, though, so I can pop a new one on if one blows while I am out on the road. Note: one source of regular I/C hoses is Tiny Avenger - see Vendors links page

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Ground Effects - by Nate Killmon There was no dealer options for ground effects. Unfortunately most aftermarket companies such as Erebuni, Pacific, as well as several others, have stopped making kits for our cars. There is only two manufacturers of ground effects for the 87-88's that I'm aware of currently. GSTfx located in Wisconsin makes fiberglass kits, made when ordered, usually takes about a week. These kits fit over the existing panels, however the fiberglass kits do have to be trimmed and fitted to the car. They are not hard to install, just takes some time and patience to fit them properly. Most kits come with exhaust tips for the rear. Other items are available with the kits including light kits, wings, etc. For more information call GSTfx at 877 506-5695, they are very knowledgeable and great to talk with. I hope to have more pics available in the near future. The pic below is off their website. Keep in mind these kits cost more than the plastic kits, but you get your money worth because they are fiberglass which is much stronger and should any piece become damaged it can easily be repaired by most anyone or any shop without special tools. Visit GSTfx web site at MCK Plastics - Kobel Brand Note: MCK's website is down as of Jan 2003. They are in the process of building an entirely new site that should be up and running by March 2003 if all goes well. In the meantime you can contact them at: MCK Plastics Inc
Po Box 200849
San Antonio, TX 78220
Local area (210) 661-0007
Toll Free 800-685-6235
Email: [email protected] McK is actually the maker of the Kobel Brand which still offers kits for TC's and T-birds. Their kits are high quality injection molded ABS Plastic, and look really good installed. Their kit for the 87-88 TC's sells for $479.00 as of January 2003.The front and rear are three piece units and the side panels are one piece. McK makes the kits after you place your order and it usually takes approximately 2 weeks. The kits are shipped via UPS.

The kit on my car is by two mfgr's. See NATO Showroom for pictures The front and rear are single piece fiberglass units that were made by a company called Pacific (out of business years ago). The side panels are single piece abs plastic made by McK/Kobel.

These pictures are courtesy of McK. Even though the car in these pictures is an 88 Sport model, the kit for the TC is basically the same, the only difference on the TC kit is that it has cutouts for the driving/fog lamps. You can't see it in the picture, but on the bottom front edge, there is an imprinted Tbird emblem.

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Programmed Ride Control Problems - by Jeff Korn Question: The Programmed Ride Control on my 87-88 Turbo Coupe doesn’t seem to be working correctly and / or the green PRC FIRM light is flashing. Answer: If the PRC computer detects a fault in the system, it will flash the FIRM light. The PRC computer can be put into a self diagnostic mode just like the EEC can. To enter the PRC self test mode, do this: Remove the ash tray and locate the two terminal connector right under the ash tray. Fabricate a wire, like a bent paper clip, and jumper the two terminals on the connector. Be sure the PRC switch is set in the AUTO RIDE position, and start the car. Within 20 seconds of starting the car, remove the jumper wire, and watch the PRC FIRM light. Count the blinks of the firm light. The light will blink the same code 4 times, once every 9 seconds. Here is a brief explanation of the codes: Code 1- Fault in LH rear activator circuit, 2 - Fault in RH rear activator circuit, 3 - Fault in RH front activator circuit, 4 - Fault in LH front activator circuit, 5 – Short in soft shock relay control, 7 – Replace PRC computer, 13 – Short in hard relay control, 14 – Fault in relay control circuit, 6 – no problem yet…. Further diagnostic work needed. The Ford shop manual contains a detailed troubleshooting procedure for each code, which is impractical to reproduce here. If specific information is needed, ask on the message board, and someone should be able to give you the troubleshooting details. Question: The Programmed Ride Control on my 87-88 Turbo Coupe doesn’t stay on FIRM all the time when I put the switch in the FIRM position. Answer: The most likely cause of this problem is a bad AUTO / FIRM switch. Before replacing the switch, try to clean it by blasting it liberally from both the front and back with electrical contact cleaner (available at Radio Shack) while working the switch between positions. Many times this will fix the problem. If the switch still doesn’t work, it is possible to take the switch apart and clean the contacts, and reassemble the switch, but if you try this, watch out for small springs and balls that may fly out of the switch. If you want to replace the switch with a new one, (if you can find a Ford dealer that actually has one), you will be in for a shock, as the switch is only sold as part of the whole assembly which includes the REG/ PREM fuel switch, power antenna switch, and the switch panel. The switch and panel assembly costs in excess of $100. Programmed Ride Control Actuator Repair - by Don H. I found that the actuators get stuck internally. The actuator is a small reversible motor. When the programmed ride control calls for firm or soft settings voltage is applied to spin a rotor about 90 degrees. This happens so quickly they put little rubber bumpers inside the actuators to stop the rotor movement and absorb the shock of it turning. The little rubber bumpers turn to goo inside and the rotor gets stuck at the firm or soft setting. You have to remover the actuator from the top of the shock by squeezing the white plastic retainer. Once off and disconnected carefully pry up the two metal tabs on the wire retaining clip and remove the clip. Next, pry up the tabs holding the case of the actuator together and separate the case. Inside you will find the rotor, a wire wound disk. Remove this and clean the black goo off the rotor and inside the case under the magnets. Thoroughly clean the contacts on the underside of the rotor and the semi circular contact in the case. These may be burned at one end or the other, so get that all off. The two dissolved rubber bumpers have to be replaced with firm rubber 5/16 inch long. I cut pieces of vacuum hose that length, and cutting that piece into thirds along the length. The whole idea is to get the proper length bumper in place. When you take the actuator apart, the problem and the solution will be more obvious than I can describe.

Click on the picture to enlarge prcact.jpg (266655 bytes) Picture courtesy of JT.

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Hood Liner/Under Hood Insulation Original Equipment Hood Liners/Under Hood Insulation is obsolete for the TC's, however you can find aftermarket liners that you can cut to fit and actually provide better heat protection and sound dampening that OE liners. One such company that makes liners is Dynamat. Quote from their description: "The Hoodliner is a polyether, urethane-based, thermo-acoustic foam with a reinforced aluminized facing and a pressure-sensitive adhesive on the application side. The Hoodliner is designed to be die cut to shape and then applied in a vehicle's engine compartment to the underside of the hood. The adhesive side is smooth, ensuring complete contact with the underlying surface without any air pockets of channels. Both material and adhesive can withstand temperature ranges between -40°F and +225°F (-40°C to +107°C)".

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Changing Fuel Filter(s) - by Pete Dunham Changing the fuel filter is fairly simple on all Turbocoupes and Turbo Cougars. All years use the same filter which is about the diameter of a soda can and not quite as long. It has small diameter tubes on each end that the fuel lines attach to. A fuel filter only costs about $10-12 and is an often overlooked maintenance item. A clogged filter can cause poor running conditions by limiting the proper flow of fuel to the engine. It can lead to premature fuel pump failure by causing the pump to work harder. It is best to relieve any pressure in the fuel system before disconnecting the lines at the filter unless the car has sat over night. This can be accomplished one of several ways: Recommended way: One option is to unplug the fuel safety switch in the trunk, and start the car. The pressure has been relieved when the car stalls. After installing the new filter, plug the safety switch back in and turn the key to the on position once to have the fuel pump come on. Then turn it one more time to start the car. Another option is to change the filter after the car has been parked overnight or for at least 6-8 hours. There should be little to no pressure in the line, but you still need to exercise caution when unplugging the fuel lines at the filter. Last option (not recommended) is to relieve the pressure at the Schrader valve (which looks just like a tire valve) and it's located on the fuel rail behind the upper intake manifold. Just depress the little pin just like letting air out of a tire. Protect your face and eyes as gas will squirt out. Once the pressure is relieved, change the filter. The 83 - 85 TCs have two fuel pumps, a small one in the tank and another one in line with the filter which is on the passenger side, underneath the car behind the back edge of the door. There is a bracket that holds it in place. Loosen the bracket and remove the two "U" shaped plastic clips that hold the fuel line connectors in place. Note that the filter is directional, and which way to install it will be marked on the new filter. Put the new filter in , replace the clips and tighten the bracket and you are done. If you break the U clips you can use plastic zip ties to hold the connectors in place. The Turbo Cougars should be exactly the same. On the 86-88 TCs the fuel filter is located just in front of the fuel tank on the passenger side, bottom of the car. Relieve the pressure as above and change the filter. Back to Top

Installing an Aftermarket Stereo
Originally by Brandon Coop
Updated September, 2013 by Todd Waite (PM: deadbird on NATO Message Board)

You'll need the following items:
A Generic stereo wiring harness adapter that you can get somewhere like Wal-Mart for a few bucks, get the one for Ford that covers your year car, it will have black and grey connectors. You do not need the dash kit. In my opinion it is worthless. The key to making this work is to disable all of the factory Premium sound equipment (except the speakers), otherwise you WILL NOT get it to work. The first thing to do it take the dash apart to get to the stereo... unscrew and unplug the stereo, and the equalizer. Wire the aftermarket stereo harness into the adaptors you just purchased (match the colors). There will be several wires you do not use unless you are putting subs in.
Installation with Equalizer:
If you follow the two cables that were plugged into the stereo (which are black and grey) back into the dash a bit, you will see that one of them is plugged into another cable.
This is the KEY - unplug that connection - plug in the Wal-Mart adapter that fits into THAT connection, not the identical one that you unplugged from the stereo. Now you still have that other plug from the stereo, it's not really an issue, just plug the other adapter cable into that one and wire it to your stereo's harness. Don't forget to reattach the ground cable to the center post sticking out of the back of your stereo! Congratulations, you just completed the hard parts.
Installation without Equalizer:
Follow the wiring coming off of the black connector until you see a second black connector that's not plugged into anything - that is your target. Use that connector and the gray one that came from the back of the radio. Make sure you also reattach the ground cable to the center post sticking out of the back of your stereo, the new one will come with a post to put there.
All Installs:
Go to your trunk. There is a factory amp in the trunk that needs to be unplugged or you'll overload it and it will all sound like crap or it will not work. Take the black cardboard backing out of the trunk to get to the back seats. To take it out, there are three push style plastic pieces at the top lip of the trunk opening; take them out and you can remove that cardboard. Once it's removed, you'll see two aluminum pieces mounted to the back of the seats. One on the left, and one on the right. Look at the top on them for the white plastic piece with the bolt on it holding them upright (they are hinged at the bottom) Take that one bolt out and that aluminum piece will drop down on the left. Once it has dropped down, you will see the amp mounted to the back of it, it is silver with two square plugs on top. Just unplug those - BOTH OF THEM. You may want to wrap the ends in electrical tape to be safe. Once you're done with that, fold that panel back up, reattach it, and put your trunk back together.
Installing the Stereo Head Unit in the Dash:
If you did get a kit, try to follow the directions. If not, try this, it works better for me: Take the silver brackets off of the side of the stock stereo. Put the brackets in the dash and screw them in. Put the metal bracket that came with the stereo in between them (it's a tight fit and will stay for the moment). Now measure how far out you want the stereo to come out and mark where the brackets sit - You may want to test fit the trim around it. Once fitted, take it all out and drill holes into the new metal bracket that match with the old holes. Use rivets to secure them in place. Install your new custom bracket, plug all the wires in and secure the head unit. If the bracket is too tight you can enlarge the stud holes on the bracket a bit.
Double check all connections, check all the cars fuses and turn it on to make sure it works.

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Engine bucks/jumps few mins. after startup then runs fine
by Nate Killmon & Jeff Korn This is a fairly common problem and usually results from a TFI/PIP problem, either one, or a combination of both. PIP's wear with mileage and as the sensitive electronics degrade with heat and time, they start to have problems. Checking codes is the first step however keep in mind that sometimes a bad PIP / TFI will set a continuous memory code (but not always), the only way to tell is to remove and inspect/measure it. Look for a continuous memory code 14 (intermittent PIP failure) or a continuous memory code 18 (intermittent IDM failure). Also check the electrical connector to the TFI, as they tend to get dirty, and the pins tend to pull out. Sometimes, if you are lucky, removing the connector and blasting it out with electrical contact cleaner will cure the problem. If it is indeed the PIP than replace it and the TFI at the same time, they work in unison and changing one without the other will cause your problem to worsen, or the problem may go away for a short time, and then return. Some have found that it is just as cheap to replace the entire distributor that comes with a PIP already, as opposed to buying the parts and having a shop replace the PIP. The distributor drive gear has to be pressed off/on to replace the PIP. The TFI does not come with the new distributor so you will need to purchase one and ONLY!!! get FORD brand. Most all other brands to date have been known to have problems and fail within a short time frame. KEM also makes a high quality TFI, but it costs about as much as the Ford TFI. Another thing to note is that a PIP code may not indicate a bad PIP either. I had a rather frustrating experience with Bosch plug wires, somehow they tripped a PIP code 14. After tracking the problems of missing under hard acceleration to the Bosch wires, removing them, clearing codes, the PIP code has never appeared again.

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Electrical Ground Locations This list is from the 1988 EVTM * LH fender apron near battery * At rear window defrost grid * lower RH side of engine * near battery * On RH floor pan * RH floor pan * lower RH cowl, near EEC (computer) * LH rear of engine * RH rear of engine * RH fender near MAP sensor * RH side of trunk * at rear center of trunk * at LH rear of engine near brake control unit * Under center of instrument panel * In trunk at radio amplifier * trunk, at radio filter * in trunk at amplifier * Upper LH rear of engine * LH center of dash * Lower center of instrument panel * under center of IP * above LH headlamp assy * above RH headlamp assy * at LH rear of trunk above wheel house

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Brake Booster Relay Diagnosis - by Jeff Korn Find the relay with the T/Y, GY, GY/R, GY/Y, PK/LB wires. Remove the relay from its socket, and jumper the T/Y and GY/R terminals together with a heavy gauge jumper wire. Turn the key to run. You should be able to hear the hyd. pump running in the ABS unit. If you hear it run, but don't let it run for more than 10 seconds or so. If you hear it run, turn the key off and put the relay back in its socket. Now, turn the key on, and depress the brake pedal several times and see if the pump runs. If it doesn't run, probe the PK/LB wire (stick pin thru wire, etc), and, with key on, ground this wire. Pump should run. If it does, the relay is good, if it doesn't run, but ran when the T/Y and GY/R wires were jumpered, then the relay is bad. Be sure to check out the Technical Article TEVES II Electro-Hydraulic Braking System 87-88 TC's written by Jeff Korn which also covers the relay diagnosis and much more.

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How to Check distributor cam wear with a timing light
Article from Equus Tech Tips Perform this test after the timing has been set and the timing mark lines up with the reference pointer for the No. 1 cylinder.

Connect timing light to spark plug wire directly opposite (180 degrees) of the No. 1 cylinder on the distributor cap.

Start engine and aim timing light towards timing mark. Reading should be the same as when timing light is connected to the No. 1 cylinder. (Timing mark should line up with reference pointer). If reading IS NOT the same, you may have a worn distributor cam or bushing, or a bent distributor shaft. Repair as necessary.

NOTE: Distributor rotation is clockwise.     Picture courtesy of Brian Leavitt.

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87-88 Rear Brake Caliper Braket and Slider Pin Kit Part No's: - by Gary Schweikert The following part numbers are for the rear caliper brackets and pin kits.

RIGHT SIDE: Bracket.....F1DZ-2B511-A
Pin Kit.....E7SZ-2B296-A

LEFT SIDE: Bracket.....F1DZ-2B512-A
Pin Kit.....E7SZ-2B296-A

You need one pin kit for each side, Pin Kits include the pins, grease, rubber boots, and caliper bolts.

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Check Turbo Light - by Jeff Korn Only one thing triggers the check turbo light: the overboost switch. If the light stays on all the time, either the overboost switch is bad, or the wiring between the light and switch is shorted to ground. Pull the electrical connector off the overboost switch (on back of pass side strut tower, has only one vac line to it, and a single elect. connector) and see if the light goes off. If it does, over boost sw is bad, if it stays, on you have a short to ground. If the switch is bad, I would just leave it disconnected.

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BPV (ByPass Valve)
vs BOV (Blow Off Valve)
- What's the difference - - by Jeff Korn BPV (ByPass Valve) - vents boost (high pressure air) back to the intake system before the turbo and after the air meter when you close the throttle under boost. BOV (Blow Off Valve) - vents boost to the atmosphere when the throttle is closed.

Back to Top Engine Overheating - John Draxler / Thunderbird Ranch There are many things that can cause overheating. Most of you can list all the usual ones, and pretty much correct them. However there are times when you have done all these things and still have a problem. Overheating can be caused by a couple of things that are not cooling system related and these get overlooked most all the time. One is the timing. If your timing is set too early you will run a bit hotter than normal. If you suspect this then just retard the timing a bit and see if you can bring the temp down and still keep a good running engine. Another one and one that is quite prevalent is when your engine runs lean it will run hot. It does not take much to make an engine run lean either. Lean condition can be caused by numerous things such as a bad O2 sensor, clogged injectors, plus a few others. Sometimes you will not notice it in the running of the engine hardly at all. So if your car tends to run hot and you are not positive that your fuel system is up to par............ check it out. Also, be sure to check the operation of both fans as described in the Cooling Fan Test article on the NATO Technical Articles Page

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Console Switch Panel Lettering - John Draxler / Thunderbird Ranch If you have an 83-88 aero bird you probably have found that your console panel that houses the switches for the windows and seats gets pretty worn looking after a few years. Most have the lettering for the switches worn off by now and you are wondering how to restore this. Many of you have searched high and low for a good panel in all the yards and have called me and found that I do not have any either. I have found a fix. It is not an easy one however it is very cheap. You can repaint the panel with semi gloss black paint and then put new lettering on it. The hard part is finding the lettering. Well, I have found that model railroad folks use a rub-off transfer lettering that works well for this. You will find this stuff in local hobby stores where they sell model railroad supplies or pick up a model railroad magazine and check out the ads. If you decide to do this I suggest putting a coat of semi gloss clear coat on top of the lettering when you finish to protect your job.

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Door Lock Switches (83-88 aero birds) - John Draxler / Thunderbird Ranch If your door lock switch buttons do not work anymore you may be able to clean them and get them working again. Remove the panel and the switch from the panel. The switch can be taken apart. However it is very delicate. First get some electrical contact cleaner and hose it down good with that spraying into every crack and hole you can find. Work the switch a bit to see if you can get it to come back to life. If you are brave and want to open it up pay very close attention to how it is clipped together. That plastic is very delicate and breaks easily. I do offer a cleaning and reconditioning of the these if you prefer not to take a chance on breaking them.

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Ignition Switch Installation Tip Question: I went to the Ford dealer and got a new switch. Came back to install it and decided before I actually put it in that I would connect it up to ensure it worked. As soon as I plugged the connector into the new switch, everything started working - blinkers, A/C Blower, back-up lights - everything that didn't work before. One problem though - the keys were still in my pocket !! SO I put the keys in my switch and tried to start the car and the car would not start. I assumed the switch was the wrong one for my car. Answer: The switch comes with the contacts set in the RUN position. TO properly install the switch, turn the key to RUN, and install it. Then turn the key to OFF before reattaching the connector. That way, the little pin will properly engage slot in the switch. Back to Top
Tail Lights Quit Working - by Jeff Korn At the light switch connector, jumper the T/W wire to the BR wire. If you have tail lights, then the light switch is bad.

Do you have dash lights? If so, fuse 4 is OK, and the headlight switch is probably good. If you have front parking lamps, but the rears are out, look for fuse 15 to be blown. Back to Top
Touble pulling codes - Jeff Korn If you are correctly running the code test, and the EEC wont give any codes, check to be sure that the 02 sensor ground is connected. It is a orange wire with a ring terminal on it grounded at one of the 2 bolts at the turbo inlet elbow. If the 02 isn't grounded, the EEC will not give codes. Back to Top
Door Hinge Fix - Jeff Korn Question:

My doors sag when they are opened. What is the problem? Answer:

Your hinge pins and bushings are worn out and need to be replaced. While any body shop can replace these, it not too difficult to do yourself. The project should take about 1 œ to 2 hours. The biggest problem is supporting the heavy door while the pin is out of a hinge. To support the door, I made a “U” shape out of 3 pieces of 2”x4” lumber, each 10 œ” long. I mounted two of the pieces on each end of the third piece so there was a 7” gap between the upright pieces. I used screws and pieces of angle iron to be sure it was strong. I drilled a hole in the center of the bottom of the U, and put a long bolt with a large washer through the hole. I removed the saddle from my floor jack, ran the bolt through the hole that held the saddle, and secured the U to the floor jack using a large washer and nut. To protect the door, I glued some old headliner material inside the U. The U fits between the inside of the door, and the trim on the outside of the door, and securely holds the door in place when a hinge is removed. : 10px">Now for the pin and bushing replacement. Go to the HELP section of the local discount parts store, and get two #38410 Door Hinge Repair Kits, which are about $3 each. Open the door all the way, and somehow mark the exact locations of the hinges on the door. Support the door near the back end with the home made U tool described above, or use your own method. Note that having a person hold the door might not work, as these doors are HEAVY, and will need to be supported for 5 to 10 minutes! Do one hinge at a time! To remove the pins, I used a Dremmel tool with a grinding stone to grind off the top of the old pin, and used a long screwdriver as a drift to knock the pin out through the bottom. Once the pin is out, Use a œ” wrench or socket to remove the part of the hinge attached to the door (2 bolts). On the top hinge, the bushings are in the part of the hinge that is attached to the car frame, and can be knocked out with a long screwdriver and hammer once the outside part of the hinge is removed. Lube the new bushings, tap them into place, and reinstall the part of the hinge that was removed EXACTLY in the same position it was on the door. Lube the new hinge pin, and insert the new hinge pin from the bottom, tapping it in fully with a hammer and screwdriver, punch, etc. When fully seated, the groove for the E clip will just be visible at the top. Install the E clip, and you are done. The bottom hinge is done in nearly the same way, except the new pin is inserted from the top, and the E clip is inserted in the second groove of the pin. The bushings are in the part of the hinge that is removed, so replacing them is even easier than replacing the bushings on the top hinge. Note that the pin will stick out of the bottom of the hinge quite a way, but it doesn’t interfere with anything. After fixing my sagging, kind of hard to close driver side door, it now shuts just like the door on a new Lexus!!

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Sunroof Leaks - Kevin Campbell has the weather stripping, about $60. Factory exact replacement. It is NOT hard to pull the window. 1. Put the window in the vent (rear high ) position. 2. On the inside.. front edge.. the black molding has three little screws .. remove them... the molding then can be slid to the rear (gently). 3. Now the 6 phillip screws that hold glass panel in are exposed. Three on each side. Remove those and then lift the glass out. 4. Pull the old weather stripping off... clean the mating surface. ( I used carb cleaner on a rag, a razor blade and elbow grease). 5. Test fit the new gasket (it is too long and will need to be trimmed). 6. Use weather-stripping cement. I used 3M brand. Follow cement directions. 7. Helps to have a second set of hands when putting on the gasket so as not to get the cement on anything you don't want it on. 8. Install new strip, pressing firmly all the way around to insure a good bond. 9. Let it setup for 30-40 minutes. Then reverse the procedure used to take the window out.. reinstalling the glass. 10. Put the window in the closed position and let it set for a day or so. The gasket needs to form against the body. Otherwise it is apt to bind when you try and retract the roof into the body. Pretty simple.. made a BIG difference in wind noise reduction. My previous old gasket leaked in a high pressure car wash. This one doesn't leak at all. Back to Top
Installing New Headliner by Mr. T To remove it, you need to take out all of the surrounding upper trim: Visors, front trim, side trim, rear 1/4 trim panels, rear trim if you have an '83-'86. Take the dome lamp out. Next, put the seats in full recline and at the lowest setting if you have power. Then have someone help you and take it out through the passengers door.

As for the new liner, you MUST take off all of the old liner first. The tedious part is cleaning the foam backing off the cardboard. You can scrape a lot of it off w/ your hand, but the remaining particles need to be taken off w/ a scrub brush.

You should get the majority of it off and you will be left w/ just a thin layer of the old dried glue remaining on the board. This is okay. You will want to re-attach the new liner w/ 3M Super Trim Adhesive in a spray can (I think the part # is 08090) You may receive a lot of opinions on the glue, but I spoke w/ Auto upholstery shops and they swear this is the only stuff that holds up properly to the extended high temperatures that the roof can see during summer months. It is expensive (about $14/ can plus tax). You will need at least two cans.

I suggest attaching it in two stages. Make all of your cuts for attachment/clearance holes AFTER it is fully cured in place. Make sure you have more headliner than you need so it extends past the edges. Start by spraying half of the board and half of the headliner and letting it get tacky. Then folding the headliner down to the board and
lightly rolling it out w/ a small paint roller. Start from the middle and work your way out toward the sides. Again, it is best to have someone help you to manipulate the headliner and board. After you finish one side, repeat on the other half. You may want to leave it face up for a day to give it ample time to cure.

Back to Top Rewire Fog Lights by Jeff Korn The stock fog light wiring system is poorly designed at best, and puts undue electrical loading on the light switch, multifunction switch, and wiring harness. Putting higher than the stock 55 Watt bulbs in the fog lights will cause even more problems, and lead to light switch and/or multifunction switch failure. There is a simple solution to this problem – rewire the system to operate the fog lights through a relay. When a relay is used, the fog lamp circuit only carries about 100 milliamps of current instead to the 10 amps it carries using the stock 55 W bulbs, or 19 amps when 100 W “off road” bulbs are used. This can greatly extend the life of the light switch and multifunction switch if you use your fog lights often. A small amount of additional wiring will make the fog lights come on automatically when you switch to high beams, which will really light up a dark road ahead. I have the fog lights wired this way on all three of my cars, and really like the light they throw. No wires need to be run through the firewall to do these mods. All the wiring is done near the front of the car, on the drivers side. DISCLAIMER: In many areas, using your fog lights with high beams is illegal, so this part mod is “for off road only”. There, I said it, so the DOT can’t come after me. The basic mod: operating the fog lights through a relay Parts needed: A 30 amp fog light relay (about $4 at any parts store), a relay socket or 4 female spade connectors to mate up with the relay terminals, a fuse holder and a 30 A fuse, several feet of 10 gauge and several feet of 14 gauge automotive wire. I suggest all connections be soldered, but I suppose some splice connectors would work. The wire color codes listed are for the 87-88, but MIGHT be the same for 83-86, bit I am not sure. Locate a place to mount the relay, and mount it. I mounted mine to the top of the core support near the battery using a small metal “L” bracket. Crawl under the front of the car and locate the harness going to the fog lights. Locate a part of the harness before it splits off to each fog light, and extract several inches of the Tan / Orange wire from the harness. Cut this wire. Attach a piece of 10 ga wire to the Tan / Orange wire GOING TO THE FOG LIGHTS, and run this wire to one of the two relay contacts. Run another piece of 10 ga wire from the battery terminal of the starter solenoid to a fuse holder, and from the fuse holder to the other relay contact terminal. The fuse should be located as close to the starter solenoid as possible. TRYING TO GET BY WITHOUT USING A FUSE IS ASKING FOR TROUBLE! Run a piece of 14 ga wire from the other Tan / Orange wire (coming from the harness going toward the rear of the car) to one of the relay coil terminals. Run another piece of 14 ga wire from the other relay coil terminal to a good ground. I used the same screw that mounts the relay to the core support for a ground. Having the fog lights turn on automatically whenever the high beams are switched on Parts needed: the only additional parts needed are two small 1 amp rectifier diodes, 1N4003, 1N4005, 1N4007, etc, available at Radio shack, and some more 14 gauge wire. Only a small amount of additional wiring is needed to make the fog lights come on with the high beams. Put one of the diodes in the Tan / Orange wire going to the relay coil. This diode lets current from the fog light switch flow to the relay, but blocks any current from the high beams from flowing back to the light switch. Find the Light Green / Black high beam power feed wire going to the driver side headlight, and tap into it with a length of 14 ga wire. Run this wire to another diode, and run the other side of the diode to the relay coil terminal that the Tan / Orange fog light wire goes to. This diode will pass current to the relay whenever the high beams are turned on, thus turning on the fog lights, but will block the fog light current from turning on the high beams. BE SURE TO CONNECT THE DIODES WITH THE CORRECT POLARITIES, OR NOTHING WILL WORK CORRECTLY!!! Back to Top
Twin Turbos vs Single Turbo
by Rod Short - Sales Manager - Precision Turbo & Engine and Dave Andrews - Garrett Engine Boosting Systems Recently a NATO member e-mailed me and asked us to respond to the threads about twin vs. single turbo applications. Before anyone starts throwing stones, readers should be aware that we are involved with both twin turbo and single turbo applications, so we do not have a vested interest in either. Precision Turbo did the turbos and intercoolers for the first Sport Compact into the 6-second zone (Grant Downing - twin turbo 3.0L inline six cylinder) and the quickest and fastest single turbo small block door slammer on the planet right now (Chuck Samuel - single turbo 375 cid 6.44 @ 220 mph) We talked with Dave Andrews at Garrett Engine Boosting Systems who is an application engineer that's had considerable experience designing race-only turbos of a wide variety of race applications. His response is as follows: "There is currently a myth that multiple turbos are inherently better than a single turbo when it relates to gasoline turbo charging," Dave said. "This simply isn't true. A large single turbo is always more efficient than multiple smaller units. The increased turbocharger efficiency afforded by larger units results in less backpressure, lower intake manifold temperatures and often better transient response. As turbochargers increase in size, they become more efficient. In the case of the centrifugal compressor wheel, as the wheel diameter gets larger, the blades experience less back-flow due to favorable wheel/housing tip clearances. The turbine wheel shares the same benefits when run in larger diameters. These increases in compressor and turbine efficiency produce a higher overall turbo efficiency." "The actual differences between single and twin turbos as it relates to horsepower can be significant" he continued. "For example, on a 400-cid pro 5.0 engine, a well matched single turbo can create the same boost pressure as twins, but with 12psi lower exhaust manifold pressure. The lower exhaust pressure results in lower engine pumping losses and a slight increase in volumetric efficiency. In addition, the single turbo will operate at a higher compressor efficiency. This has two effects: less turbine power required (lower backpressure) and lower intake manifold temperature. It's very possible to see 40 degrees or lower compressor outlet temperatures from a good single turbo versus smaller twins. This translates into a cooler, denser intake manifold charge. Comparing a large turbo compressor map to a smaller unit with half the flow capability will immediately show the difference in compressor efficiency at a given pressure ratio." "I only know of two situations where multiple turbos are better suited," Dave said in closing. "The first situation relates to high boost diesel turbo charging where the user needs boost pressures over 60psi. Competitive tractor pull vehicles often use multiple turbos. In this case, series turbo charging (where one compressor feeds into another compressor) works much better than a single unit in building ultra high boost levels. Another example of series turbo charging is on high altitude aircraft. The current record holding aircraft for high altitude climbing uses two (and sometimes three) turbochargers in series to make up for low air pressure at altitude. In both of these examples the user requires a pressure ratio in excess of 5:1 whereas nearly all gasoline powered racing bodies run below 3:1 pressure ratio (less than 30psi of boost). Hope this sheds some light on the topic. Rod Short - Sales Manager - Precision Turbo & Engine
Dave Andrews - Garrett Engine Boosting Systems

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What does "A/R" mean? - by Pete Dunham from Corky Bell's book, "Maximum Boost" It is the area to radius ratio. Think of a long ice cream cone. Now think of that cone wrapped around a shaft kind of like a snail shell. Cut a little bit off the closed tip of the cone. This hole is the discharge area for the exhaust gases. The area of this hole is the "A" of A/R ratio. The "R" is the distance from the center of the area (A) to the center of the shaft. No matter where along the cone you make this measurement the A/R for a give cone will be the same. Back to the small open end of the cone. This determines the velocity of exhaust gases exiting the cone and therefore the velocity of exhaust gases as they pass over the turbine wheel. Overly simplified, the smaller the A/R , the quicker the turbo will spool up, but also the more it will contribute to higher back pressure and reversion into the combustion chambers. The smaller A/R also limits max turbine speed. This means that the .48 A/R turbine side (T3) will spool a little quicker than the .63 A/R and will have higher back pressure, while the .63 can achieve a higher turbine speed (pump more air on the top end) This is a generalization. There are other factors that determine overall turbocharger performance. The preceding was loosely paraphrased from Corky Bell's book, "Maximum Boost", ISBN 0-8376-0160-6 from Robert Bentley Publishers. I got mine at Amazon. I highly recommend it for anyone wanting to learn about turbocharging. Back to Top
Converting KPH Speedometer to MPH:
by Sam of Sam's Fox ThunderCats at As you all know, the standard 85 MPH speedometer in these cars is a joke. The 140 MPH Motorsports unit is great, but on the rare occasion that you find one the guy wants a mint for it. We Canadians fare much better - we get a 200 km/hr (120 MPH) speedo from the factory. This speedo will bolt right into your US cars, but the odometer will measure out kilometers instead of miles. This means that for every mile you put on the car the odometer registers 1.6 - in other words, you end up showing many more miles than what you've actually got on the car.

I recently installed a TC cluster into my '88 5.0 'Bird, and I did the tach mod to make it accurate for a V8. It got me thinking, though, that perhaps the speedometer could be modified as well, so that the odometer showed miles instead of kilometers. Today I took apart a Canadian and an American analogue speedometer to see what the differences were. I found that as far as the odometer is concerned the differences are purely mechanical - the gearing is different between the two, but the electronics are identical. This means that, as I had originally suspected, you can install a Canadian 120-MPH speedometer into your car with the US odometer attached to it. There are only three screws holding the odometer assembly to the speedo head, so the swap is
quite straightforward. Now you can have your 120 MPH speedo with US odometer for a fraction of what a Motorsports speedo would cost!

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Oil Pressure Problems - Gauge, Sensor or what?
by Jeff Korn
What does the gauge read with the key on, engine off? Does it read zero pressure? With the key on, pull the wire off the oil press sender. Does the gauge now drop to zero? If so, short the wire that goes to the press sender to ground. Does the gauge go to the same place it does when the car is running? As a last test, hook a DMM set on a low ohms range between the oil press sensor and ground with the car running. Resistance should be around 5 to 10 ohms, roughly. If it reads zero ohms, sensor is bad. BTW, have you put a real mechanical gauge on it to see what the press really is? Ford had a bunch of complaints about high oil press readings on the factory gauge (in the red at high end of scale).... their solution. Put a pin in the gauge to keep the needle from ever going into the red!!

Back to Top Ranger Fan Conversion
by Gary S. email: Here is the basic list of things I used. All junkyard parts. Cheap!
1. Ranger Clutch and Fan assembly
2. Aerostar shroud
3. Upper Rad hose (I got this off my parts car but these are
some #'s on the hose itself 6A03 EBP 80MH19 21163
4. I used a 4" wide strip of sheet metal to extend shroud into
blades but 6" would have been better. Start by removing the dual fan assemblies. Unplug and remove wires and tuck them away over by the fender, making sure they won't blow back into new fan blades or belts. If you have the upper rad hose with the kink in it you are ok for fan blade clearance. My upper hose went straight toward thermostat housing and would have been in the way of fan blades so I robbed the kicked out one from my parts car. Next remove 4 bolts on water pump pulley and remove metal spacer. I did this without removing belt but watch out, the pulley will kick off to one side. Now bolt on the Ranger clutch fan assembly and tighten bolts evenly. Now the shroud fits right into the bottom clips and use the two top bolts, just move the threaded clips to where you need them. If you want the shroud extension (it will help pull more air through) wrap the metal extension around the shroud and pop rivet on. There may be a better fitting shroud, I don't know for sure but I got mine free so extending it was easy option.I think that wraps it up but email me for any questions if anything seems vague. Back to Top
Clutch Fork part number/info

by Pete Dunham Info as of Feb. 2004 This is for those of you that own manual transmission 87-88 Turbo Coupes. It recently came to my attention that Ford discontinued the clutch forks for the 87-88 hydraulic clutch system. These had been available through dealers until recently. I got this information from my local Ford dealer when I tried to purchase a couple of these forks. What they told me is that a place in Wisconsin named Vintage Auto Parts has somewhere between 90 and 115 of these left. I do not know if anybody else has any or not. The phone # for Vintage is 877-846-8243. However when I called them to order the parts, they told me they had them but that the forks had to ordered through a Ford dealer. Vintage would not sell direct to me. I have been able to order some through my dealer. Delivery only takes a couple days. Like I said, I don't know if any other obsolete parts dealer (like Green Sales) has any or not. My dealer provided me with all the info on Vintage, including the phone number. if you go to your dealer, they should see it in their computer when they look up the Part #: E7SZ-7515-A. Back to Top
Insurance Claim Tips & Advice

by Matt S. [email protected] I just got notice today, after almost 3 months since I wrecked it, that insurance will pay me $4,000 to rebuild my car and not total it out or even mark the title rebuilt. I'm hoping my experience will save someone else's car down the road. I've heard of cars being totaled just for a cracked header panel. That's (expletive) insane. The burden of proof for the value of your car is on YOU, unfortunately. Grab every listing you can. Point out the mileage/condition/rust differences. Just say no. Every time your insurance comes to you with a number, it will only be a few hundred more than the last time. Ask for proof on where they got their numbers. Contradict their findings with your own facts. If they called the auto trader listings you provided, make them tell you WHICH ONES they called, then point out those cars are far away, and that you also talked to the owner and these differences/damage/options are worth more money. Every time your insurance offers you a number, they will tell you the next step is for you to hire an appraisal. Tell them they have not exercised a good faith negotiation on price, or due diligence in considering your research and receipts. Most states laws have these buzz words in them regarding total loss, and these words always work in your favor. File a complaint with the insurance commissioner; they got REALLY honest after I did.
In most states, they can not contractually force you to hire an appraiser until all of their estimates are documented in the mail to you. Always ask for proof that you can verify, make them prove where they got their numbers. Make sure they value your car to your car. Remember the initial valuation I got only had one TC, 3 SC's and the rest v6 POS cars. I got them to throw that out.

Wait...Wait...Wait. They'll say they will call you tomorrow. So what if they don't (and won't). I noticed they always called me after 2 1/2 weeks; they get pressured for not closing a claim. This is the crucial key in any negotiation, and it only serves to better the "coercion by no action" code of insurance law. Use your judgment, if it's too long, the same could be said of you. However, they were always "sorry it is taking so long" which I replied "..of the other 2 cars I had to choose from in my driveway."

In the last few weeks, with the insurance commissioner office waiting for a response so now the fire's lit up, I started to hint I wasn't happy with their valuation etc. and wanted to keep it if they won't value it right. That's when I got back to the adjuster and reminded him I wanted a copy of the repair estimate, and also of the talk we had about parts when he looked at the car 2 months ago.
[end edit]

Work with your adjuster that you can get parts cheaper than a dealer (honest truth they shopped at a dealer for a hood...1500 bucks!!!). Make sure the parts they have in the repair estimate are accurate and not duplicated or not needed. They had me down for 2 header panels and 2 bumpers...and a new VAM, radiator, AC condenser. I called BS on that, and got the estimate down to $4k from $6500. I showed them where they can get recycled parts locally cheaper, and told them I can get parts here also.

Find yourself a body shop willing to take your cause. Since you will get the money to turn over to the body shop, you can work a cash deal and show up with parts for them saving money. A good body shop will be more than willing to work with your adjuster - the one I found knew my adjuster from previous work. Keep all your receipts...take good pictures of your car now before it's wrecked (my beach pictures wow'd them). Tell them you don't need this car, you have others to drive to keep them from pressuring you to settle. It's well worth the wait. You don't have to be a lawyer (I'm not - but I happen to have a degree in entertainment law) just persistent, factual, and pleasant to all parties no matter how pissed you may be. [edit] You have to read and understand your policy. Know the insurance laws for your state, understand it's terms.

Facts and truth always overcome the big company. Smiling ear to ear

NOTE: This is not legal advice, just my experience. I had the leverage of being on the west coast where only ONE car was published on the internet in 2 1/2 months. Washington State has a liberal term for defining value as "actual cash value" which was great because it's highly open to debate and not locked by an appraisal firm.

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Red Fluid Leaking From Gillis Valve

by Bob Myers [email protected] Question: Has anybody had experience with reddish oil leaking out of the body of their Gillis Boost Valve? I installed mine yesterday and after running it today, found reddish colored oil leaking from the body of the valve by the adjustment screw. The screw is adjusted so that 3-4 threads are showing. I'm getting good boost but I'm a little worried as to why my car is "bleeding."] Any ideas or suggestions? This would apply to any red fluid in almost any hose or connection to the vacuum tree and vacuum subsystems. Answer: If your car is an automatic, I bet you vacuum modulator is leaking. The vacuum modulator is on the side of the transmission. There is a vacuum line that runs from the modulator to the vacuum system on the car. Transmission fluid is being sucked through the broken diaphragm and up the vacuum hose to the engine. It's Pretty easy to swap, and not to expensive.

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Door Handle(s) Loose

by Eric, from Cool Cats Question:

Anybody else's door handles loose? when I pull up to open the door the handle swings about a half inch before it unlatches the door. Is there anyway to tighten it up? I am assuming there is a bar attached to the latch mechanism right? any way to adjust it there?

Potential answers:

If the rod between the handle and latch mechanism is even slightly bent, that can lead to slack in the handle. Sometimes trying another rod altogether solves the problem. Sometimes it's a matter of the handle gradually going up on the factory rivets. Sometimes the plastic grommet on the inside of the door handle needs replaced. Sometimes the latch mechanism needs replaced. I had this same problem on my old T-Bird Sport...the latch mechanism was probably the culprit. The factory rivets, as mentioned, will loosen over time and that lets the handle wiggle. At this time I don't know of a permanent way to fix that. It is possible that one could remove the door panel, reach in with some pliers and try to flatten out the rivets a little. The problem with that is, if you wiggle them too much, the metal on the rivets will snap off. It may be possible to jam something like a matchbook in behind it to keep the tension.

If you are not so concerned about keeping the original rivets, the best solution I've found is to drill them out and replace them with 1"-long carriage bolts. A little thread-locker, a lock washer and you're all set. Should the handle ever become loose you can always tighten it down. And this also lets you wiggle the handle to its optimum position, relative to the rod, to eliminate slack. Another bonus: it's much, much harder for anyone to try and drill out a carriage bolt, therefore it's got an additional safety measure.

I'm not a big believer in rivets as a permanent solution to most anything, and with the case of our door handles, they eventually fail. They were just easier to install on the assembly line, I'm sure.

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